Heart Disease in Children
Heart disease is hard enough when it strikes adults, however it can be specifically awful in children.
There are various types of heart issues that can impact children. They include congenital heart flaws, viral infections that impact the heart, as well as heart disease obtained later in youth due to health problems or genetic syndromes.
The bright side is that with advances in medication and innovation, lots of children with heart disease go on to live active, full lives.
The heart is a pump. It’s divided into a right and left side, each with an upper and lower area. The upper area, called an atrium, gets blood from the body and pumps it through a one-way valve into the lower section, called a ventricle. These valves prevent the backward flow of blood inside the heart. The right side of the heart receives the “blue” oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs where oxygen is added.
Hereditary Heart Disease
Hereditary heart disease is a kind of heart disease that children are born with, usually caused by heart defects that exist at birth.
In reality, the most common heart disease discovered in children are structural heart flaws, which happen in roughly 8 of 1,000 live births. These normally include a problem with the heart muscle or the heart valves, and consist of:
- heart valve conditions like a constricting of the aortic valve, which restricts blood flow, or a mitral valve
- prolapse, where the mitral valve leaks
- problems in the wall that separates the left and right sides of the heart (the septum)
Other genetic heart defects that impact children consist of:
- hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), where the left side of the heart is underdeveloped.
- holes in the heart, normally in the walls between the chambers and in between major capillary leaving the heart; they include ventricular septal flaws, atrial septal defects, and patent ductus ateriosus.
- tetralogy of Fallot, which is a combination of four problems, consisting of a hole in the ventricular septum, a narrowed passage between the right ventricle, pulmonary artery, a thickened right side of the heart, and a displaced aorta.
Hereditary heart flaws might have long-lasting results on a child’s health. They’re normally treated with surgery, catheter treatments, medications, and in severe cases, heart transplants.
Some children will need long-lasting monitoring and treatment.
Atherosclerosis is the term used to explain the accumulation of fat and cholesterol-filled plaques inside the arteries. As the accumulation increases, arteries end up being stiffened and narrowed, which increases the risk of blood clots and heart attacks. It normally takes many years for atherosclerosis to establish. It’s uncommon for children or teenagers to struggle with it.
Nevertheless, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other health problems put children at greater risk. Physicians recommend evaluating for high cholesterol and hypertension in children who have risk factors like family history of heart disease or diabetes and are overweight or overweight.
Treatment typically includes lifestyle changes like increased workout and dietary adjustments.
An arrhythmia is an irregular rhythm of the heart. This can cause the heart to pump less efficiently.
Several types of arrhythmias might occur in children, including:
- a quick heart rate (tachycardia)
- a slow heart rate (bradycardia)
- long Q-T Syndrome (LQTS)
- Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW syndrome)
Symptoms may consist of:
- weak point
- difficulty feeding
Treatments depend on the kind of arrhythmia and how it’s impacting the child’s health.
Though not a type of heart disease specifically, this syndrome generally shows an issue with the heart. Eisenmenger’s is in fact a collection of three symptoms, consisting of:
- cyanosis, pale blue or grayish skin due to decreased oxygen in the blood
- lung hypertension, hypertension in the capillary of the lungs
- polycythaemia, excess number of red cell
This syndrome might affect teenagers and adults with particular congenital heart flaws that were fixed later in life or were never repaired. However, it can likewise occur in newborns born with pulmonary hypertension.
Basically, Eisenmenger syndrome is a sign that the blood isn’t streaming correctly from the left to the right side of the heart. Left neglected, it can cause blood clots, stroke, and kidney failure.
Treatment normally depends on the symptoms and includes medications to reduce pulmonary hypertension, additional oxygen, and often an elimination of blood to reduce the excess variety of flowing red blood cells (phlebotomy).
This is an uncommon disease that mostly affects children and can cause inflammation in the blood vessels in the hands, feet, mouth, lips, and throat. It likewise produces a fever and swelling in the lymph nodes. Scientists aren’t sure yet what causes it.
According to the American Heart Association (AHA), the disease is a significant cause of heart disease in as lots of as 1 in 5 children. A lot of are under the age of 5.
Treatment depends upon the extent of the disease, however is typically timely treatment with IV gamma globulin or aspirin. Corticosteroids can in some cases reduce future complications. Children who suffer from the disease often require long-lasting follow-up appointments to keep an eye on heart health.
A heart whispering is a “whooshing” sound made by blood circulating through the heart’s chambers, valves, or through blood vessels near the heart. Often it’s safe. Other times it may indicate an underlying cardiovascular problem.
Heart whisperings may be triggered by genetic heart problems, fever, or anemia. If a doctor hears a heart murmur in a child, they’ll carry out additional tests to be sure the heart is healthy. “Innocent” heart whisperings generally resolve on their own, but others might require extra treatment.
This condition occurs when the thin sac or membrane that surrounds the heart (pericardium) ends up being inflamed or infected. The amount of fluid between its two layers increases, hindering the heart’s ability to pump blood like it should.
Pericarditis may take place after surgery to repair a congenital heart defect, or it might be caused by infections, chest traumas, or connective tissue conditions like lupus. Treatments depend upon the seriousness of the disease, the child’s age, and their general health.
Rheumatic Heart Disease
When left untreated, the streptococcus bacteria that cause strep throat and scarlet fever can likewise cause rheumatic heart disease.
This disease can seriously and completely harm the heart muscle (myocarditis) and the heart valves. Inning accordance with Seattle Children’s Health center, rheumatic fever usually takes place in children ages 5 to 15, but typically the symptoms of rheumatic heart disease do not appear for 10 to Twenty Years after the initial health problem.
This disease can be avoided by immediately dealing with strep throat with antibiotics.
Viruses, in addition to triggering respiratory disease or the influenza, can also affect heart health.
Viral infections can cause heart muscle inflammation (myocarditis), which might impact the heart’s capability to pump blood throughout the body. Viral infections of the heart are rare and may show few symptoms. When symptoms do appear, they’re similar to flu-like symptoms, consisting of fatigue, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Treatment involves medications and treatments for the symptoms of myocarditis.