Child maturation refers to the hereditary, biological and physical development from conception through teenage years. There are numerous developmental milestones that take place in healthy children. Although there are regular patterns of maturation in child development, individual and ecological factors make it impossible to determine exact time frames, as no two children develop in the same method.
The First Year
The first 12 months of maturation culminate with the child’s ability to walk unassisted. By about 12 months, a lot of children have become confident on their feet. Preceeding this major turning point, nevertheless, is the ability to roll over (around 3 months), grasp a rattle (around 3 months), sit without support (approximately 6 months) and stand while hanging on (approximately 7 months). According to Robert S. Feldman in “Life Span Development,” these hallmarks are usually met by 50 percent of children by the month indicated.
The Second Year
When a baby wases initially born, his head accounts for one-quarter of his body length. By the second year, the body has actually grown at a faster rate than the head, which now comprises one-fifth of the child’s whole body. According to T. Berry Brazelton in “Touch Points: Birth to Three,” the “horrible 2s” are so understood for the child’s increased capability to walk and scamper, which leads to increased autonomy and expedition. In addition to squatting, stabilizing on one foot and climbing stairs, the child’s primary teeth have now grown in. It is not uncommon for children of this age to climb up onto chairs and stack objects above their own height.
The Third Year
In the third year, legs grow faster than arms. A three-year-old can generally kick a ball, balance on one foot, and show left- or right-hand dominance. It is common at this time for children to begin grasping a crayon in between their first two fingers and thumb.
The Fourth Year
During the 4th year, alright motor abilities begin to establish, as shown by the capability to draw lines and shapes, walk in a straight line and playing around barriers with finesse. The child is likewise starting to both throw overhand and catch a ball, as well as play on the jungle fitness center and play ground.
Ages 5 and 6
By the sixth year, a child’s head makes up one-sixth of her entire body. As the body grows close to its adult proportions, the child has the ability to walk backwards, walk down stairs with ease, capture a ball, ride a tricycle, walk the balance beam and have control of a crayon or pencil. Gross motor abilities are now well-established, and fine motor abilities are becoming improved.
Ages 7 to 11
In between the seventh and 12th year, children establish the physical capability to balance on one foot with their eyes closed, dive hopscotch with dexterity, grasp and capture items with increased pressure, dive increasing lengths as much as 5 feet and run for prolonged distances, according to Robert S. Feldman in “Child Development.” By the 12th year, the head is one-seventh of the whole size of the body, and primary and secondary sex qualities are becoming more distinguishable.
Puberty marks completion of youth and the start of adulthood. Primary sex qualities, consisting of reproductive ability, along with secondary sex attributes, such as pubic and facial hair, end up being totally revealed in each sex. The conclusion of youth and start of the adult years is marked by “semenarche” in males, which is the first ejaculation, and the first menstruation in females referred to as “menarche.”