About Mitral Valve Prolapse
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a typical heart condition. It takes place when among the heart’s valves doesn’t work properly.
MVP can be frightening because it involves the heart and can occur with sharp chest pain, but it is not a vital heart problem.
Due to the fact that MVP typically does not cause symptoms or hinder everyday life, in many cases it isn’t really identified till adulthood. However with kids who are identified, it is necessary to understand what symptoms can go with MVP, so you can distinguish them from signs of any other more major heart problems.
Mitral valve prolapse syndrome was recognized as early as 1916, when Sir James MacKenzie described the soldier’s heart in extra, thin boys with great vasomotor instability, simple fatigability, shortness of breath, and pain over the area of the heart. Kerley first explained the syndrome in 1920, and Lincoln described the syndrome in 1928. In 1963, Barlow and coworkers made the first clinical diagnosis of the syndrome as it is understood today. The development of echocardiography caused more advances and formed the basis of existing knowledge.
What Is the Mitral Valve?
To comprehend mitral valve prolapse, it’s practical to evaluate some essentials about the method a healthy heart works.
- The heart is comprised of four distinct chambers: two atria (the two upper chambers) and two ventricles (the two lower chambers).
- During blood circulation, blood flows from all over the body into the heart’s right atrium.
- From there, the blood takes a trip to the right ventricle, which pumps the blood to the lungs to get oxygen.
- Once the blood has actually been instilled with oxygen, it returns from the lungs to the heart’s left atrium.The oxygen-rich blood then enters the left ventricle, which pumps it out to the body through a large blood vessel called the aorta.
Where Is The Mitral Valve?
The mitral valve sits in between the left atrium and the left ventricle and assists manage the circulation of blood as it passes from the left atrium into the left ventricle. The valve has two flaps of tissue– referred to as leaflets– that open and close together like a set of swinging doors. Each time the heart beats, the left ventricle pumps blood out to the body and the flaps of the mitral valve swing shut to prevent the blood in the ventricle from flowing backwards into the left atrium.
In cases of MVP, one or both of the mitral valve’s leaflets might flop back and bulge into the atrium when they are shut, a bit like a balloon. This may occur due to the fact that among the flaps is abnormally formed or a little too big.
Often, when the flaps do not close uniformly, blood can leak back into the left atrium. This is called mitral regurgitation. In all of us, a small amount of mitral regurgitation may be typical. When there is more than a little leak, the doctor may hear a whooshing sound– a heart whispering– in between the normal lub-dub sounds of the heart beat. (Since of these sounds, MVP is sometimes called click-murmur syndrome, floppy valve syndrome, or balloon mitral valve.)
In many cases, the cause of MVP is unidentified. In some cases kids are born with the condition. In other cases, it develops after some sort of inflammatory condition, like endocarditis (infection of the inner lining of the heart) or rheumatic fever (swelling that can impact the joints and the heart).
MVP might be identified in individuals who have other health conditions that impact the body’s connective tissues, such as Marfan syndrome. Some research has revealed that kids with MVP may be most likely to also have an arrhythmia, an irregular heartbeat.
Symptoms and signs
Lots of people with MVP have no symptoms and no problems. In many cases, however, the flaps of the mitral valve make a clicking sound when they close, like when you flick or snap a towel, and it is just called a “click.” A doctor might be able to hear this sound when listening to the heart with a stethoscope and find MVP that method.
Someone who has MVP and mitral regurgitation also may have a heart whispering, the noise triggered by some blood moving backwards into the left atrium. When a click and murmur are heard together, the click occurs first (as the flaps close and tumble back), followed by the murmur (the noise of the whirling blood as it leakages back into the atrium through the incorrectly closed valve).
Kids with MVP might have:
- dizziness or lightheadedness
- shortness of breath or trouble breathing after effort
- a sensation that the heart is avoiding beats or beating extremely quickly
- chest pain that reoccurs
The chest pain is typically referred to as sharp but can vary from person to person. And it isn’t really always clear whether chest pain in kids is triggered by the MVP or by something else, such as stomach reflux.
Chest pain in kids is not usually harmful. However, call your doctor if your child has chest pain that:
- regularly takes place during physical exertion (workout or sports)
- develops pressure and a crushing experience
- accompanies other symptoms (palpitations that last more than a couple of seconds, dizziness, fainting, or shortness of breath)
Diagnosis and Treatment
Most of the times, MVP is identified during a regular examination when a doctor listens to the heart with a stethoscope and hears a different noise. If the doctor hears a click or a whispering that suggests MVP, she or he might refer your child to a pediatric cardiologist, a doctor who focuses on diagnosing and treating heart conditions in kids.
The cardiologist will do a thorough physical examination and pay attention to the heart. Then she or he might purchase tests– including an echocardiogram (echo) and an electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)– to learn what’s causing the sound. An echo uses sound waves to create an image of the heart and its blood flow, and an EKG records electrical activity produced by the heart. If a child has MVP, the bulging valve flaps will probably be seen on the echo when the heart beats.
Kids who are detected with MVP will not require medical treatment. In many cases where MVP causes considerable regurgitation, medical professionals may prescribe high blood pressure medication to manage how hard the heart muscle works. (With blood leaking back into the atrium, the heart works harder to pump the typical amount of blood out to the body.)
A child who has an arrhythmia (an abnormal heart rhythm) in addition to MVP might have to take medicine to help regulate the heart’s rhythm. Nevertheless, this is not common in kids.
Leak due to MVP may continue over years; very hardly ever, a child might need surgery to fix a really leaking mitral valve.
Preventing Heart Infection
In a child with MVP with regurgitation (leaking), there is a little risk of a bacterial infection of the heart valve (infective endocarditis). It really seldom occurs during youth. Sometimes the bacteria that cause this type of infection start living in the mouth and from there get in the bloodstream through the gums and after that, even more seldom, cause the infection.
For several years, medical professionals recommended offering a dosage of antibiotics before dental work and surgeries as a preventative measure. Following a review and released report by The American Heart Association in 2007, it is not advised that antibiotics be given, as they were not found to dependably protect the patient.
Rather, your child ought to concentrate on good mouth care by:
- Brushing his or her teeth twice a day, morning and night (after eating)
- Flossing the teeth each night
- Seeing the dental professional every 6-months
Your child’s cardiologist will let you know if there are reasons to do something besides follow these standards.
Taking care of a Child With MVP
Kids with MVP who have no other medical conditions usually require no special care. A child with MVP who plays competitive sports will be able to continue doing so as long there’s no mitral regurgitation or active symptoms from the MVP. A child who does have regurgitation or symptoms will have to be cleared by the doctor to participate in sports. This might include some additional tests.
Although any heart disease can be frightening, mitral valve prolapse likely will not have any result on your child’s everyday life and activities. If you have any concerns or concerns, speak to your doctor.
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